* Desprez a Fleurs Jaune [Noisette] 1956


(All photos were taken at Kiho's garden.)

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The Gallicas are natives of southern Europe from France to Turkey. The original R.gallica is traced back to the ancient Greece and Rome. They were well known for their medicinal uses since ancient times.
It is said that Edmund, Earl of Lancaster brought it from France in 1277 and took it as the emblem of the House of Lancaster. R. gallica is thought to be the red rose of the House of Lancaster during the Wars of the Roses from 1455 to 1485. They are also called Red Roses, French Roses, and Roses of Provins.
They have flowers ranging from pink, through crimson, to purple and their leaves are dull green. Once-flowering with strong scent. They are low-growing, spreading hard shrubs which tolerate poor soils.
* Cardinal de Richelieu



It is thought that the name of the Damask roses was derived from Damascus in Syria and they were brought to Europe by the Crusaders.
Old roses are usually once-flowering, but the Damasks have 2 groups: the Summer Damask, once-flowering (a hybrid between R.gallica and R.phoenicea) and the Autumn Damask which has a second flowering in autumn (a hybrid between R.gallica and R.moschata). Both are old varieties, mentioned in the Greek and Roman books.
Among the frangrant old roses, the Damasks have distictive frangrance. In Bulgaria, which is famous for producing the attar of roses, they grow the Damasks for that purpose.
They are low-growing, a little taller than the Gallicas, with white or pink flowers.
* R. damascena bifera (Quatre Saisons)

* Mme. Hardy



The Albas are crosses between R.damascena and R.canina, the third ancient group after the Gallicas and the Damasks. Rosa Alba, Alba Maxima, and Alba semi-plena are also called White Rose of York, and each of them is thought to be the white rose of York, the emblem of the House of York during the Wars of the Roses.
They have flowers from white to pink. Foliage is gray-green, with few thorns.
* Alba Maxima



The Centifolias are also called Cabbage Roses, Holland Roses, and Provence Roses. They are thought to have been a cross between the Autumn Damask and an Alba around the end of the sixteenth century. They are called Centifolias which mean hundred-petalled or Cabbage Roses, because their numerous petals are very impressive, curving inwards and hiding the center. They also have another name, the rose of the painters, since we can often see them in Flemish still-life paintings of 17th and 18th centuries.
The flower is clear pink, deepening in color in the center. They can be grown as small climbers, for they make tall bush. In the nineteenth century, single or semi-double varieties were bred.


The mosses were bred from the Centifolias in Holland in the 18th century. They almost look like the Centifolias except the buds covered with mossy sepals.
The color of the flowers varies. Some grow as small shrubs, and other varieties grow more than 2m. Some of them are repeat flowering.
* Chapeau de Napoleon    
  * Alfred de Dalmas



The Chinas originated in China. They were brought to Europe in the 18th century. It contributed largely to the European rose history. The ancient European roses were only once-flowering, but by crossing them with the Chinas, new varieties with perpetual-flowering were bred.
The original Chinas are small, but many roses are around 1m high. The flowers varies from pink to red, single or double.


They are said to have originated in Italy. The Portlands were named after the Duchess of Portland in the latter part of the 18th century. They are supposedly crosses between an Autumn Damask and R.gallica 'Officinalis'.
They are all perpetual-flowering. Suitable for growing in pots and small gardens.


The Bourbons were found in an island called Ile de Bourbon (now Reunion), east of Madagascar in 1817. They appeared by a chance cross between the Chinas and the Damasks which were planted as hedges. Many legendary roses were bred from the original Bourbon rose, which has a long flowering season from the Chinas and good scent from the Damasks. They are famous for the paintings by Redoute. Also Victorian people loved them very much.
The Bourbons are hardy perpetual roses with fragrant round and large flowers.
* Mme.Lauriol de Barney* Variegata di Bologna* Souvenir de la Malmaison


The Hybrid Perpetuals appeared in the 19th century as crosses between the Bourbons and many other. At that time flower exhibitions were very popular, and three thousand of new varieties were produced, but then they declined. Today less than 100 varieties remained.
Their flowers are red, pink, and white, fragrant and large. Very strong shoots.Rather coarse growing.
* Duke of Edinbugh



The Teas originated in China. They are thought to have been crosses between R.chinensis and R.gigantea. They were brought to Europe at the beginning of the 19th century, but not suited to the colder climate, they were often grown in greenhouses. They thrive in Oceanian countries, South Africa, and Mediterranian countries. There are many discussions about the origin of the name, Tea, but it seems that the Teas' scent does not actually resemble the scent of tea.
There are 2 types of Teas: climbers and bushes. Beautiful large flowers are pink, buff, or light yellow. Few thorns.


In 1961 the first English rose, Constance Spry was bred by David Austin. The many-petalled classical flowers with charming fragrance which people nearly forgot by the emergence of the modern roses has come to be spotlighted again. They have not only classical style and fragrance but also repeat-flowering advantage which are not common for the most old roses. The English roses will be more and more popular in accordance with the recent rivival of the old tendency.
Various fragrance. Many-petalled globular flowers with various colors. In warmer areas, they grow tall as small climbers.
* Glamis Castle* St.Cecilia
* L.D.Braithwaite* Perdita

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